But the world's five biggest science and technology clusters are now in East Asia; Japan's is the largest and China has the most.
As climate litigation increases, the body of legal precedent grows, forming an increasingly well-defined field of law.
The biennial report noted the erosion of nuclear security coincides with growing nuclear security dangers and alarming increases in stockpiles of weapons-usable nuclear materials.
The total number of nuclear warheads fell worldwide, but the amount of operational nuclear weapons started to rise.
Heavy rains and warmer temperatures make it easier for the bacteria that causes cholera to spread, posing a major setback for global efforts to eradicate the disease.
Humanitarian leaders say the risk of nuclear catastrophe is the highest 'since the worst moments of the Cold War.'
Droughts, floods and heatwaves drove food insecurity and mass migration as communities on every continent were hit by massive costs, the World Meteorological Organization said.
More than 300 accounts of heads of state, government leaders and their institutions, plus some 40 major international organizations and their leaders were slated to be demoted.
Despite his concerns about Russia and China and the "unraveling" of the international arms controls regimes the world has long depended on, the NATO chief emphasized the need to negotiate new arms control arrangements.
The number of nuclear warheads that are available to nations for deployment reached 9,576 at the start of 2023, up from 9,440 a year earlier, according to a watchdog's new report.