The election adds only the sixth female judge and denies Russia a seat for the first time in the court's 77-year history.
As climate litigation increases, the body of legal precedent grows, forming an increasingly well-defined field of law.
The European Court of Human Rights heard two climate cases brought by citizens against Swiss and French authorities complaining they must do more to reduce carbon emissions.
Prodded by Vanuatu and other nations, the U.N. General Assembly will ask the ICJ based in The Hague for an unprecedented legal opinion on nations' legal obligations to fight global warming – and the consequences if they don't.
Prodded by China and Pakistan, the U.N. Security Council held a closed-door discussion on the Indian-controlled region.